For each of them the outbreak of the war was marked by some memorable events and memories.
In general, they were a part of foreign residencies of the Soviet Intelligence, reconnaissance and sabotage groups and teams behind enemy lines, performing special tasks in the occupied territories. On the occupied by the enemy Ukrainian land alone, there had been actively functioning a good dozen of intelligence residencies, plenty of underground-partisan, behind-the-front task groups, individual intelligence officers and agents who had been prepared, taken out across the front line and whose activity was coordinated exactly by representatives of Intelligence subunits of the State Security bodies of the Ukrainian SSR.
Characteristically, the intelligence officers, who were born in Ukraine, never focused on their merits in the light of national origin or in relation to the place of birth. Moreover, among those brought up by the Ukrainian land, there were not only Ukrainians, but also Russians, Belarusians, Germans, Jews and other nationalities. At the same time, current attempts of some foreign politicians to downplay the role of Ukrainians, to attribute nearly all the achievements of the Soviet people and Soviet intelligence in the victory over Nazi Germany mainly to representatives of one nation, look, to put it mildly, incorrect and not serious. So let’s turn to the facts.
The war caught them abroad
The outstanding Ukrainian painter, People’s Artist of the USSR, laureate of the Shevchenko State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR, Mykola Hlushchenko before the Second World War for a dozen and a half years had lived in Berlin and Paris, masterfully combining the roles of an artist and an intelligence officer. In the mid 1930s he fulfilled a series of complicated tasks collecting scientific and technical information of defensive nature, thanks to which the Soviet Intelligence Service received top secret drawings of 205 types of military equipment, particularly of aircraft engines for fighter aircrafts.
Later, in 1940, Mykola Hlushchenko, disguised as an organizer of the exhibition of Soviet fine arts, visited Berlin. He went there with a special mission. He had to meet with representatives of the Ukrainian diaspora who held certain position in the society and had extensive contacts, and to get from them a real insight into Hitler’s plans and intentions against the Soviet Union. Besides, he had to restore the lost contacts with former Soviet intelligence agents from whom nothing had been heard for a long time. And he had to hold a conspiratorial meeting with a representative of the Soviet Foreign Intelligence Service to get from him important information and additional instructions.
As a result, in June 1940, was immediately prepared a memorandum report addressed to Stalin and Molotov and signed by the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR. The report read that the sent to Berlin intelligence officer Yarema received from the management of the Ukrainian Research Institute, which is subordinate to Germany’s Ministry of Propaganda, information about Hitler’s preparing for war against the Soviet Union.
The information about preparations for attacking the USSR was also provided by the native of Chernihiv region Petro Hudymovych, sent to Warsaw as a resident of the Foreign Intelligence Service before the war. He reported on the concentration of German troops near the Soviet border, their hidden relocation, reconstruction of roads and so on. In the spring of 1941 from residency to the Center was sent a coded message on the basis of which was written a message to the Kremlin. It read that the war between Germany and the Soviet Union supposedly had to begin when the field works were finished. In the evening June 21 the intelligence officer received from his trustee information that the attack would take place the following day. However, he could not send the information to Berlin as the intelligence communication was no longer working.
One of those who could have prevented unleashing of the Russo-Finnish War in 1939, was Borys Abramovych Rybkin, a native of Yekaterynoslav province (now – Dnipropetrovsk region). By Stalin’s personal order, he had been secretly nagotiating with representatives of the Finnish government for a peaceful settlement of the imminent conflict between the USSR and Finland.
Rybkin was a legal resident of the Soviet Foreign Intelligence Service in Helsinki. First he was Consul, then – the Second Secretary of the Authorized Representative, and since April 1938 – Charge d’Affairs of the USSR in Finland. This high status was no accident. He had to perform a special mission – to conduct extremely important secret negotiations with the leadership of Finland. Their main goal was to reach an agreement on moving the Soviet border on the Karelian Isthmus away from Leningrad in exchange for giving away to the Finns even much bigger Soviet territory elsewhere. Unfortunately, no agreements were reached. But it was not the Foreign Intelligence resident’s fault. Such was the political situation at that moment. At the same time, the operation was one of the first examples of intelligence officers’ participation in secret negotiations at the highest level.
One of the most successful Soviet intelligence officers who before and during World War II had been working abroad from both, illegal and legal positions, was Yelyzaveta Yuliyivna Zarubina. She was born in Rzhaventsi village of Khotyn district of Northern Bukovyna. At that time those lands belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and later went to Romania and eventually became an integral part of Chernivtsi region of Ukraine. Zarubina had a number of features that allowed her to work effectively in the Foreign Intelligence Service: literate and educated, attractive and stylish, an interesting interlocutor, she had studied at European universities, knew six foreign languages, could easily personate and play different roles, had an inclination to reasonable risk and adventurism.
It was she who on the eve of World War II during some time had been supporting an intelligence communication with German Hauptsturmführer Willy Lehmann (alias “Breitenbach”), one of the prototypes of Shtirlits from the movie “Seventeen Moments of Spring”. She and her husband and partner in intelligence work, Vasyil’ Zarubin, future Major-General and Deputy Chief of the Soviet Foreign Intelligence Service, naturally complemented each other.
Another valuable agent whom Zarubina met, was “Vinterfeld”. He first worked as an ordinary messenger in the German Foreign Ministry, later was promoted to a staff member who was instructed to work with coded telegrams. After the Zarubins had left for Motherland, intelligence communication with “Vinterfeld” was maintained by another resident. Meanwhile, the agent had been trained at the School for Storm Troopers, received the title Sturmführer, began to share the views of the Nazis, as he clearly stated during meetings. Due to this, contacts with him were stopped. But soon, before the Second World War, there was a need to restore contacts with ex- agents that could be useful for the Soviet Intelligence Service. Yelyzaveta Zarubina was sent to Berlin disguised as an employee of the Soviet diplomatic mission. She managed to see “Vinterfeld” June 11, 1941 at one of the metro stations. The next meeting was appointed for June 21, but it never happened because all the exits from the Soviet embassy were blocked by the Gestapo.
The fates of military intelligence officers of WWII Anatoliy Hurevych, Semen Poberezhnyk and Yan Chernyak, who were born in Ukraine, and for a long time had been performing specific tasks of the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army in Europe, were largely similar. They all had been collecting extremely important information that dramatically influenced the course of hostilities.
Anatoliy Hurevych, one of the leaders of the intelligence network “Red Chapel”, born in 1913 in Kharkov, had an operation alias “Kent”. Back in April 1939, with the passport of a Mexican artist in his pocket, he arrived in Belgium at the disposal of the resident of the illegal intelligence residency of the Soviet Military Intelligence Leopold Trepper. This illegal network, as well as some others in Europe, was established in case of a war against the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, A. Hurevych on orders of the Center is leaving for Switzerland to communicate with other members of the Soviet Intelligence residency “Dora”, headed by Shandor Rado, who gave “Kent” important information about Germany’s preparing an attack on the Soviet Union. A. Hurevych himself in December 1940 passed over to Moscow a coded message about the plan “Barbarossa”.
And after the beginning of the war, a new risky assignment awaits him- to go to Berlin, to meet with the radio operator of the group “Alta” K. Schulze and with members of A. Harnak (“Korsikanets’”) and H. Schulze-Boyzen (”Starshyna”)’s groups. A. Hurevych performed these tasks. During this period the Center demanded a regular flow of information and the intelligence network “Red Chapel”, deliberately ignoring their own safety, almost daily aired reports about plans of Hitler’s commandment, redeployment of divisions, their composition, Wehrmacht’s losses.
Semen Yakovych Poberezhnyk was born in the village Klyshkovtsi of Khotyn district, near Chernivtsi, into an ordinary Ukrainian peasant family. In 1937, when the Spanish Civil War began, he was one of the first to join the ranks of volunteers and became a soldier of the 12th International Brigade under the command of General Lukach. In summer of the same year he arrived in Sevastopol, where for over half a year studied at the Intelligence school. Then, disguised as an English electrical engineer, he left for Italy, where in the port city of Taranto established residency capable to inform about the deployment of the Italian Navy.
For about half a year he stayed in Italy, then returned to Sevastopol, and then, just before the outbreak of the Second World War, with a new task he was sent to Bulgaria under the guise of the same Englishman. The Soviet Intelligence Service needed to know whether Germany was using Bulgarian ports for its own purposes and whether the Bulgarian leadership was going to make an alliance with Hitler in case of an attack on the Soviet Union. The information provided by Poberezhnyk during this period, was based on data drawn directly from the environment of the Bulgarian Tsar Boris III.
Another man from Chernivtsi, Yan Petrovych Chernyak, was the son of a Czech Jew and a Hungarian woman. Agents, whom he had recruited in 1930s – 1940s, worked quite well for a long time abroad. Even during the Second World War, no member of the created by him illegal residencies in Germany, Italy and other European countries, was blown by the Gestapo. They, according to published materials, had been working in important positions in the Wehrmacht, Abwehr, the same Gestapo and one- even in Hitler’s Headquarters. In wartime and postwar period, two of his sources of information were awarded the Order of Lenin, four – the Order of the Red Banner, eight – the Order of the Red Star, two – the Order of the Badge of Honor.
One of those who long before World War II consistently and purposefully on a professional basis had been preparing to conduct guerrilla warfare in the rear of the enemy, was Mykola Arkhypovych Prokopyuk. The Intelligence-officer-to-be was born in the village of Samchyky of Staro-Kostyantynivskyi district of Kamyanets’-Podil’sk province (now Khmelnytskyi region). In 1940, after the end of the Russo-Finnish War, he was sent to Finland as resident’s assistant disguised as an employee of the USSR Trade Office. His task was to study the German-Finnish relations and collect information about possible plans to make Finland participate in the hostilities on the side of Germany.
Prokopyuk managed to get important operational information about the Finnish side’s violations of the Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, the transfer of German troops to the north of the country, secret military Finnish-German talks. In March 1941 from one of his agents he received a notice about German divisions’ arrival in Petsamo, and after a while – about reservists’ having been given military uniform, which meant almost bringing them on full alert. In June the residency received advance information about an agreement between Germany and Finland concerning the latter’s participation in the war against the Soviet Union. After the outbreak of hostilities, the whole Soviet diplomatic mission, including Prokopyuk, was deported.
With the brand of an “enemy of the people”
In the early days of the war, a Special Group was created at the NKVD to organize reconnaissance and sabotage activities behind enemy lines. It was led by Pavlo Sudoplatov who requested the Commissar of Internal Affairs Lavrentiy Beriya to release from prison a number of unjustly convicted intelligence officers. Among those for whom he asked, was the Kyivite Raisa Sobol’, arrested for relationship with the so-called “enemy of the people” and defector, a senior officer of the Foreign Intelligence Service Olexandr Orlov.
She was released in August 1941. First she was appointed an operations officer of the Special Department of the Southwestern Front, and in August 1942 she became an Intelligence instructor at the Command Staff of the Northern Group of guerrilla units. In this modest post Raisa Sobol’ through all the war years had been training intelligence officers and radio operators.
Thanks to P.Sudoplatov’s request, was released from prison Ivan Mykolayovych Kaminskyi, a native of the village Kornin of Skvirskyi district, Kyiv province. In different periods of his career he had to be a resident of legal and illegal residencies of the Soviet Intelligence Service in several European countries. First he had been performing these tasks as a sleeper (agent living legally) in Latvia, Italy and Finland, and later became the chief of illegal residencies in Germany and Paris.
In 1941 he was being prepared for landing behind the enemy lines to create intelligence residency in Zhytomyr. Immediately after landing I. Kaminskyi was ambushed. As it turned out, he was ratted by a local agent of NKVD, who by then had already been converted by Gestapo. Not to be captured, the intelligence officer shot himself at the safehouse. It happened in 1944.
Leonid Leonidovych Linytskyi on his return from Yugoslavia in 1938, where he had been head of illegal residency in Belgrade in 1930s, managed to avoid arrest and repressions, through which had gone hundreds of fellow intelligence officers who also had worked abroad. However, a new stroke of fate awaited him in his native Kharkiv region. He learned that his mother was arrested and executed in 1937 as a Polish spy.
He was fired from the ranks of the Intelligence Service. For several years he worked as a doctor in Kharkiv City Hospital Two. Here the war caught him. After numerous reports with a request to send him to the front, he was noticed and offered to perform tasks behind enemy lines as part of a reconnaissance and sabotage group in Yugoslavia, where guerrilla movement was widely spread. Linytskyi’s intelligence work in Yugoslavia continued until the liberation of the country and was highly appreciated by the government.
Shortly before the Second World War, was arrested Serghiy Tarasovych Karin, a native of the village Vysoki Bayraky in Yelyzavetgrad province (now Kirovohrad region). He was charged with the so-called conspiracy of the Chief of the GPU of the Ukrainian SSR V. Balytskyi and creation of an anti-Soviet nationalist organization. He spent 26 months in Lefortovo and Butyrka. He was released only October 22, 1939. The case was dismissed for absence of a crime in the act. Months of torture in prison and tuberculosis took toll: he had to retire from service for health reasons. At the beginning of World War II, S. Karin filed a report with the request to use his operational experience, and was included into the group for preparing guerrilla and sabotage activities.
At the Forefront
Because of mass repressions, which affected the Foreign Intelligence Service before the war, a large number of officers unreasonably and wrongly were withdrawn from abroad. Various tests, re-certifications, so-called cleansings, searches for enemies disorganized the activity of the Foreign Department. Yevhen Petrovych Mitskevych, a native of Volyn province, managed to avoid arrest. Yet he was withdrawn from the USA and, despite his already gained experience in Germany, Italy, Britain, China, knowledge of several foreign languages, in October of 1939 he was appointed Deputy Chief of the Road and Railway Transport of the NKVD of the USSR. In this position he worked till the beginning of the war.
In the early months of the war, Yevhen Mitskevych commanded an NKVD Special Purpose Battalion, later he headed one of the Directorate’s Departments dealing with Foreign Intelligence. There he was organizing reconnaissance and sabotage activities behind enemy lines. In 1944 he was sent to Italy to resume illegal residency. There, in a short time, he created an operational group, which kept sending important political and military-technical materials.
In the history of the Intelligence Service of that period is inscribed the name of Ihor Shchors- second cousin of the legendary cinema hero of the Civil War Mykola Shchors. In 1944 – 1945, he participated in developing and conducting large-scale strategic radio games with the German Intelligence Service “Monastyr”(“Monastery”) and “Berezino” which resulted in misleading the enemy and neutralizing a large number of enemy agents.
The Odessite Mykhailo Maklyarskyi also directly participated in carrying out these classical operations. In June 1941, he was appointed the Head of the Department of the Special Group under Commissar of Internal Affairs. He arranges mobilization of agents to counteract Nazis’ diversions in Moscow and trains the Moscow underground for possible actions in the occupied capital. Since 1942, he was Head of the 3d Department of the 4th Directorate of the NKVD. In this position, he was in charge of reconnaissance and sabotage groups that operated in occupied Belarus, and participated in development of operations to eliminate Gauleiter Wilhelm Kube. It took him half a dozen of attempts before he did away with the Belarusan people’s butcher with the help of a mine with clockwork.
Yet the most successful operations were “Monastyr” and “Berezino”, developed, among others, by M. Maklyarskyi. First, the aim of the operation “Monastyr” was infiltration into the the Abwehr’s agent network, which operated in the Soviet Union. But then the fake radio messages actually turned into a confrontation between the Soviet and Nazi special services. Active use of these radio games with German intelligence service contributed to the success of Soviet troops’ offensive operations.
Among female intelligence officers of that period, is a native of Kherson region Maria Fortus, whose unique biography is full of adventures and dramatic episodes. She had previously served in Makhno’s groups fulfilling intelligence collection tasks and in the Republican Spain enveloped in flames of war. And during World War II she was the Chief of Staff of the Regiment under the command of Maryna Raskova, was in Dmitry Medvedev’s partisan detachment, where for some time she worked jointly with the Soviet Intelligence officer Mykola Kuznetsov. As part of the Intelligence Department of the 3rd Ukrainian Front, she trained reconnaissance groups for their work deep behind enemy lines, she was air dropped more than once onto the territory of Romania and Hungary with special tasks for which she was awarded five Orders of Wartime.
A special mark on the history of Foreign Intelligence Service during the Second World War was left by a native of Berdyansk Volodymyr Vertyporokh. In the early days of the war he, like many other colleagues, was included into a Special Group at the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs, engaged in the formation of reconnaissance and sabotage groups in the rear of German troops. Then there was a trip to Gomel, later on – to Kyiv. Here he takes part in preparing intelligence residencies for the period of occupation and sending agents with intelligence tasks to the rear of the enemy.
The next period of his activity is connected with development of operational plans for activities related to bringing Soviet troops into Iran. His knowledge of the situation in the region, national features, culture and customs of Iranians contributed to the fact that in 1942 he was appointed resident of the Soviet Foreign Intelligence in Mashhad. During the Tehran Conference of the leaders of the three Allied states in November – December 1943, the resident of the Intelligence Service was also involved in the activities to ensure the security of participants of the Conference. His experience helped him in the future when he was working in the Central Intelligence Office where he also had directly to do with work on the Middle East direction.
With special tasks behind enemy lines
From the very beginning of the war the Intelligence Service set the task to immediately form special groups of staff employees and residencies to conduct reconnaissance and sabotage activities in occupied territories. In the occupied Kyiv the illegal residency was run by Ivan Kudrya, a native of Kyiv region. He acted as a teacher of the Ukrainian language and literature, and lived disguised as a son of a priest from the village Merefa, Kharkiv region, shot by Soviet authorities.
Kudrya focused his efforts on creating battle groups from a number of members of the underground and organizing subversive actions – on the railway and in places of gathering of Nazi soldiers and officers. Besides, he managed to start publication of leaflets with bulletins of the Soviet Informbureau. But most important was the information on deployment in Kiev of the Abwehr intelligence point. During the time of occupation our officers managed to collect information on 87 Nazi agents. Sadly, Kudrya did not pass over copies of these materials to the Center. In the summer of 1942, he was arrested and later executed by the Nazis. Only after the liberation of Kyiv, Counterintelligence officers thanks to these data, found and arrested many Abwehr agents, infiltrated into the Soviet territory.
In Mykolayiv, the reconnaissance and sabotage residency, which operated under the supervision of the officer of the Soviet Foreign Intelligence Service Viktor Lyagin, born in Orel province, included many local partisans, underground fighters and intelligence officers. They participated in collecting information on dislocation of Hitler’s military units in Mykolayiv, intelligence and counterintelligence agencies, the occupying authorities’ plans, repairs of ships at shipyards. The collected data originally were transmitted into the Center by radio until the batteries dried up. Then the members of the underground decided to focus on diversions.
The key role in this was played by the native of Volyn’ province Oleksandr Sydorchuk. Taking into consideration the fact that he had served in the Navy, he was included into the reconnaissance and sabotage group “Marshrutnyky” which had to act in Mykolayiv after its occupation by the Nazis. He chose the covername “Moryak” (“Seaman”). One of the main objects of his aspirations became the airfield where in hangars and outdoor areas there were many German planes, repair shops, warehouses with various equipment and fuel. It was kind of a strong aviation base on which old planes were repaired and new aircrafts were assembled. As a result of a series of powerful explosions and fire, everything was destroyed. All in all, the Germans lost 27 planes, as many spare aircraft engines, petrol storage, two stocks of equipment and spare parts, aircraft repair shops. By the scale of the enemy’s losses caused by the operation, it figures in the history of World War II.
At the beginning of the war the Directorate of the Soviet Foreign Intelligence Service faced the question of finding candidates with a thorough knowledge of the German language to be used in intelligence activities in the occupied territories. Then ethnic Germans were thought of who from the beginning of hostilities had been massively evicted to remote areas of the Soviet Union, fearing lest they sided with the invaders. Over time, the settlers began to be looked at differently, not seeing each of them as a potential traitor. Moreover, after some additional study those Germans began to be used in particularly secret and responsible work in Intelligence.
Among those who came to the attention of Intelligence officials, was a native of Odessa Mykola Arturovych Heft. His mother was a third-generation Odessite, and his father Arthur Hotlibovych was of German origin. Mykola Heft drew attention of representatives of Security Services in Kazakhstan, where he was in exile, but not as a man disgruntled at the Soviet power, but as a patriot, and it was decided to involve him in the intelligence work.
After the Intelligence school, he was sent to the occupied Odessa, where he headed one of the intelligence groups. He managed to get a job of an engineer at a construction company that was controlling the repair and construction of ships for the German Navy at the former A. Marti plant. First of all he found reliable assistants, who soon were joined by a Centre’s man Valerian Erikhovych Burzi, a native of Kherson, a German by origin.
After meeting in Odessa they agreed as follows: Heft will further continue his underground work at the plant, while Burzi will work among residents of the city- collecting military, political and economic intelligence information, disclosing Gestapo and Romanian Siguranţsa’s agents. Together, they managed to organize a series of explosions and accidents on Nazi combat and auxiliary ships.
The intelligence officers, with the help of local residents were also getting information about the location of military units, location of warehouses of weapons, ammunition and food, coastal and air defense of the city, troop movements, as well as about the city administration and the enemy’s agents. This information was regularly communicated to the catacombs. There it was sorted out by members of the detachment under the command of Captain Volodymyr Molodtsov – Foreign Intelligence Officer, born in Tambov province, who was known in the underground as Badayev Pavlo Volodymyrovych. Within three months of 1941 the unit carried out six combat operations. Besides, from October 1941 to June 1942 Badayev’s and other detachments had been diverting to themselves the attention of about 16 thousand enemy soldiers.
With the approach of Soviet troops, intelligence officers decided to sabotage the evacuation of the plant. Thanks to joint efforts, workers and professionals escaped a forced evacuation to Nazi Germany and prevented blowing up of at least the main shops.
Somewhat in the shadow of the famous Soviet intelligence officer Russian Nikolay Kuznetsov there was his team mate from “Peremozhtsi” (“Winners”) partisan detachment Mykola Strutynskyi from Rivne, though his military achievements were quite significant. He acted in Rivne region as a secret service man and an organizer of reconnaissance groups, maintained communication of the “Peremozhtsi” detachment with the underground, supplied partisans with samples of various Nazi documents, accompanied Kuznetsov in combat operations as a driver and with protection mission.
One of the greatest intelligence officers of the Second World War was Oleksandr Svyatogorov from Kharkiv. It was he to whom the books “Double Trap,” “His Name Was Zorych,” “The Front in Wehrmacht’s Rear”, “Death and Life Are Side by Side” and others were devoted. He was one of the prototypes of the hero-officer Oleksandr Belov – Johann Weiss from the film “Sword and Shield”.
June 22, 1941 found him in Kyiv. On the eve of Nazi occupation of the city, Svyatogorov was included into a special group that was to make inoperative the electric power, telephone and telegraph stations. Then he became part of the Operation Group at the First Directorate of the NKVD of the USSR, which had been preparing agents for staying in occupied territories with sabotage and intelligence tasks and had been securing bringing them behind the front line. Before the Nazi seizure of Kharkiv, he was instructed to carry out preparatory work to organize diversions. In particular, in the house where the city Commandant von Braun settled, two explosive devices had been put in advance. At this, one of them was the latest development of the legendary mine specialist Illya Starynov. The moment senior officers of the Wehrmacht had gathered at the Commandant’s for a meeting, the radio-controlled mine exploded. About two dozen high-ranking Nazis were buried under the wreckage. Later O. Svyatohorov worked in reconnaissance and sabotage groups that at the final stage of the war against the Nazis acted on the lands of Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Even more has been written about Major “Vykhor”(“Whirlwind”) – Hero of Ukraine Yevhen Bereznyak. In the early months of the war he was engaged in underground work in his native Dnipropetrovsk. After the liberation of these places, Bereznyak was sent to Special School at the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army, and then – to Poland. Yevhen Bereznyak, aka Captain Mikhailov, also known as “Holos”(“Voice”), had to perform an important task of the Intelligence Department of the 1st Ukrainian Front — to infiltrate into the rear of the enemy and to collect information about the fortifications on the banks of the Vistula River and near Krakow. Thanks to decisive actions of the headed by him military intelligence battle group “Holos”, ancient Krakow mined by Nazis was rescued from destruction.
In general, the contribution of Intelligence officers born in Ukraine into collecting information about Hitler’s preparations for the war and into the victory in World War II cannot be measured by any numbers, -numbers of valuable materials received, or operations conducted or acts of sabotage or committed heroic deeds. And how can it be estimated?! And is it worth measuring, laying special emphasis on someone, isolating him from the many of known and unknown heroes, for whom above all was patriotism, military duty, desire to protect their homeland? But every nation and state has to remember and honor its heroes.